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THREATS OF COMMUNISM AND POLITICAL ISLAM AS PIVOTS OF USA’S GROWING POLITICAL AND MILITARY ENGAGEMENT IN THE HORN OF AFRICA SINCE CA. 1945 [Abstract ID: 0902-02]
The Second World War marks a turning point in the history of the USA in the Horn of Africa. The two main factors that account for the increasing assertiveness of the USA in the region relate to first the spread of communism and then political Islam. The unique geo-strategic significance of the Horn of Africa to the Middle East conflict and Cold War politics and USA’s unflinching commitment to assert is preponderance there standout as the enduring foundations of USA’s partnership with the Horn of Africa states. Unlike the pre-WW II period, the USA was the most decisive element in deciding the fate of colonies of defeated Axis powers which included overriding the interests of Allied member states, France and Britain. After 1991, the driving cause of US influence in the region relates to terrorism which is responsible for the reconfiguration of relations among Ethiopia, Eritrea, the Sudan, Egypt and Somalia. The article appraises how the USA before and after the Second World War transformed itself from a neutral power to the Scramble for Africa to the most decisive country in shaping the postwar historical dynamics.Fresh archives of the Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, British Foreign Office, Italian Embassy in Addis Ababa, the United Nations and academic publications have been used to substantiate the arguments.