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VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL LIVELIHOOD TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CASE OF LIBO KEMKEM DISTRICT, SOUTH GONDER ZONES, ETHIOPIA [Abstract ID: 0306-03]
Background: Climate change at the present time is one of the biggest worldwide agendas; this issues challenges for developing countries, especially in agro-pastora livelihood. Vulnerability is the degree to which environmental systems are likely to experience harmful climate change. Adaptive is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change.
Objective: To evaluate vulnerability and adaptation strategies of agro-pastora livelihood to climate change. Study was conducted on Libo District 2016/17.
Methods: Primary and secondary data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires, field observation, interview, focus group discussion and key informant interviews and national meteorological data. District was selected based on being more vulnerable to climate changes when compared to other district. Three kebela were selected based on stratification agro ecological zone. The sampling size of 120 farmers was randomly selected. Data analyzed by using STATA, SPSS and Microsoft Excel.
Result: The annual and maximum average annual rainfall is decreasing at the rate of 21.21 and 7.499 mm per 25 year. The rainfall is decreasing trend the linear equation (Y=21.21X-41) with R2=0.64 at 5% level of significance. The annual temperature and average annual temperature increase rate 1.53oc and 0.128oc per year respectively. This climate variably seriously affects agro-pastora livelihood, especially in depletion of water resources, animal health, expansion of drought, reduced grass grow and ecological instability. Result showed that 27.8% agro-pastora livelihood more vulnerable Climate change, high magnitude of impact and lower adaptive capacity etc... The result of Multinomial logiest Model farmers adaptation different strategies against climate change soil conservation practice, to plant improved grass species like bane grass, green gold, elephant grass, crop diversification with livestock forage alfalfa and cowpea, using improved crops varieties and irrigation were 37.5%,22.5%,16.67%,13.33% and 10% respectively. Result reveals (42.8%) agro-pastora livelihood more vulnerable climate-change due to higher magnitude impact, low adaptive capacity, lack education, weak livelihood strategy and being exposed to extreme climate shock and climate sensitive resources. Result indicated main constrain adaptation strategies lack of information about long-term climate change, lack of appropriate adaptations strategy, lack of access to timely weather forecast, lack of irrigation schemes 29%,17%,11.67%,12.5%,37.5% respectively. Multinomial logestic Model results of marginal effect (dy/dx or mfx) confirm that access climate information, social capital, access technology, economic wealth, extinction services and farmer to farmer extinction services have statistically significant impact on climate adaptation strategies.
Conclusion: The farmer should develop appropriate livestock and farming intervention and pay specific attention to fodder production for livestock. The government should be developing different climate adaptation strategic practices and raising awareness of the local population for sustainable development of agro-pastora livelihood. Researcher recommends that climate vulnerability should be supported and intervention by government, policy and decision maker is advised to improve existing policies for sustainable development of agro-pastora livelihood.