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[PANEL] 1205 GLOBALISATION AND RURAL ETHIOPIA
Philippa BEVAN, Independent Researcher, UK
Catherine DOM, Independent Researcher, UK
Alula PANKHURST, Independent Researcher, Ethiopia
Sarah VAUGHAN, Independent Researcher, UK
Shabieko IVY; TEFERA Goshu; Sabine PLANEL; Mehdi LABZAÉ; RUTH Kassaye; Lena PARTZSCH;
AGAZI Tiumelissan; Catherine DOM; ALEMU Asfaw Nigusie; Agata FRANKOWSKA; Alula PANKHURST;
Thomas OSMOND; KIROS Birhanu; MULUGETA Gashaw; Philippa BEVAN; Samir EL OUAAMARI; Cindy ADOLPHE;
Gunilla BJERÉN; MULUGETA Debalke; BAYISA Abdisa; SHIFERAW Fujie; Sarah VAUGHAN; SHALOM Ali
Towards the end of the 20th century a number of technological innovations originating in the West were central to a process of global transformation which has contributed to increasing and accelerating change in Ethiopia. In 2017 many Ethiopians have access to trans-national information and communication networks bases on fast air travel, personal computers, mobile phones, the internet, and satellite TVs. Since the turn of the millennium the density of cross-border interactions has grown and accelerated. Human-induced climate change is having consequences inside Ethiopia’s borders. In the economic sphere these involve increases in exports, inward investment, remittances, growing aid budgets and the import of ‘global’ consumption goods. Important cultural imports include scientific and technical knowledge, religious proselytising, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies. Social links with increasing numbers of migrants and diasporas in the US, Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere have deepened as access to information and communication technologies has spread. Ethiopians have become increasingly involved in trans-border public and private organisations and networks.
In this panel we propose to explore some of the ways in which the variety of Ethiopia’s rural communities has been participating in these different ‘globalising’ processes, encouraging papers which make use of recent fieldwork-based evidence. Authors might focus on the impact of one aspect of globalisation on a community (e.g. technological innovation) or on a particular group in a community (e.g. international migration and youth), or, from a different perspective, how a particular community has been responding to all the locally-relevant processes as they work together. We are also interested in discussions of methodological approaches to understanding interactions between the global and the local in rural Ethiopia. Other responses to the panel question are also welcome.
COFFEE WAR: ETHIOPIA VS. STARBUCKS [Abstract ID: 1205-18]
While many Starbucks coffee drinkers prefer their double espresso or their Venti Latte, they often miss a shot of morning social injustice. This success has allowed consumers to get their ‘morning fixes’ with a safe conscience that no one has been exploited to give them this luxury. Like many developing nations, Ethiopia relies heavily on the trade of primary goods. Coffee is considered Ethiopia’s largest export, which generates sixty percent of its total export earnings. Sidamo, Ethiopia’s most famous coffee is “closely tied to the culture and society of Ethiopia, and an estimated fifteen million people are directly or indirectly involved in the Ethiopian coffee industry today." (Coffee trade 1) Being that this country is known for its unique flavors and reputation, it commands a heavy retail within the markets, particularly coffee stores. However, the issue arises when internationally acclaimed projects or markets creates an uneven distribution with the farmers. “It is estimated that only five to ten percent of the retail price actually goes back to Ethiopia; most of the middlemen in the marketing sectors.” (Coffee trade 1) In many first world countries, America for example, a cup of coffee is sold on average for four dollars a cup, while farmers receive only a small fraction of this. When this happens, farmers are forced to abandon their field and grow narcotic plants, which for them are more profitable. Worst, they may take alternative measures, many, which has been detrimental. Despite being a country that has never been colonized, Ethiopia faces a great economic downfall, making it one of the poorest and least developed countries within the African continent; giving one of four people employment.
This paper will examine the history of coffee in Ethiopia, how it gets produced and the effect it has on trade and environment. Furthermore, this paper will give an in depth analyses on the problem of coffee trade between Starbucks and Ethiopia using relativistic and holistic perspectives, as well as the role anthropology should play in solving this coffee war.
CONTRASTING LIVELIHOODS CHANGES AND SCOPE FOR DIVERSIFICATION IN SIRBA (OROMIA) AND HARRESAW (TIGRAY) [Abstract ID: 1205-17]
This paper will examine the impact of globalization on economic achievement in rural Ethiopia by exploring whether and how any form of globalization found in selected rural communities (notably information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, as well as ideas and ideologies) influenced the trajectories of economically successful individuals living in them.
There is no doubt that the advancement of globalization has a significant impact in interconnecting the world’s communities and is playing a great role in shaping and reshaping the political, economic, and social spheres of societies in various ways. Nowadays, it has become difficult to think of communities of the world not affected by globalization, though the degree of exposure varies greatly across places and for different individuals. Ethiopian society in general, and rural communities as part of it, have not escaped this reality. Drawing mainly on the WIDE longitudinal research, the paper will use data made on twenty communities in fieldwork conducted between 2010 and 2013, as well as data from upcoming fieldwork in four of the twenty communities planned to take place in early 2018. The paper will identify the linkages, if any, between economic opportunities and the different forms of globalisation that may be found in each community. Focusing on locally recognized economically successful individuals, it will discuss how, and what types of individuals succeeded in grasping the opportunities linked to globalization to become or remain successful or further grow, comparing with less successful individuals in the community, and touch upon whether and how individuals’ differential exposure and use of globalization dimensions might have led to differences in economic trajectories. Drawing on typologies developed by the WIDE research in earlier works, the paper will also compare and contrast how the influence of globalisation on economic success varied across the communities, in terms of both the extent of success of individuals and the type of economic activities they engaged in.
EMBODIMENTS OF THE STATE: CIVIL SERVANTS AND PEASANTS IN RURAL ETHIOPIA [Abstract ID: 1205-06]
This paper analyses the social and political roles played by small civil servants and elected peasants at the qebele level. It draws on Lipsky’s intuition that street-level bureaucrats are "policy makers" in the sense that they have the discretionary power in how to implement policies. In a highly hierarchical political system where decentralization is said to be high on the agenda, this paper looks at the roles of these small embodiments of the state in service delivery and control of the population. For most of the peasants, “the state” first and foremost means “the qebele”. Hence the need for a sociological account of who these state agents are, how they see their duties, what their relation is with the EPRDF apparel, their economic condition, etc. We will also show how small state agents interact with local qebele chairmen, and how these two groups see each other. As the rural economy has evolved and opened up, representations of how civil servants see the peasantry have changed. By tracing social trajectories of young civil servants (such as sra askiaj) and older peasants (some qebele chairmen - wana astedadari) we will show how economic background inform their access to state positions. The paper is drawn on ethnographic data collected over the past ten years in Wolayta, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella and Tigray.
GLOBAL STANDARDS FOR “ETHICAL” COTTON: HIGHER TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY TO LOCAL SMALLHOLDERS IN RURAL ETHIOPIA? [Abstract ID: 1205-01]
Rural Ethiopia is experiencing a cotton revival due to the recovery of the cotton price and the government’s interest in increase exports. Much of the country’s production comes from smallholders, who have cultivated about 39,600 hectares of cotton fields. Global standards for “ethical” cotton/textiles certification organized and coordinated by private actors, aim to guarantee compliance with minimum production criteria in rural communities. These schemes exemplify efforts to encourage and control information flows to resolve environmental and social challenges within and beyond state boundaries. Yet, in some cases, the standards are unwanted by the supposed beneficiaries. To participate in the globalized economy, and increase their market share, local farmers have to readjust their productions system according to global certification standards. This paper examines how ideas and principles at the global level are accepted and implemented at the local level by tackling issues of transparency and accountability. It aims to answer the following research question: Are global certification schemes transparent to the wider public and accountable to local smallholders in rural Ethiopia? The paper has three parts: First, we contrast outcome and procedural transparency and relate these analytical categories to accountability and legitimacy goals. Second, applying a multiple case study method, we analyze four schemes certifying cotton/textiles, namely the Better Cotton Imitative (BCI), Cotton made in Africa (CmiA), the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and the Fairtrade Labelling Organizations (FLO). Finally, we discuss the findings and differences among the schemes. The participation of smallholders in standard setting, and hence the procedural transparency, of all schemes is restricted by factors such as financial limitations, educational level, language barriers and spatial proximity. However, the FLO has established a bottom-up organizational structure in which local smallholders directly participate in global decision making through Smallholder Producers Organizations (SPO). In IFOAM, some, but not all, smallholders are represented through Intercontinental Network of Organic Farmers Organizations (INOFO), and BCI involves non-governmental organizations that work with smallholders and participate on their behalf. Only CmiA focuses solely on outcome transparency, i.e. transparency for the wider public but not accountable for smallholders in rural Ethiopia.
GLOBALISATION AND EDUCATION: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION INTENTION AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY USE IN TWO RURAL COMMUNITIES IN ETHIOPIA [Abstract ID: 1205-16]
The importance of education for both an individual's and a nation's development is indisputable. In Ethiopia, this recognition has translated to decades of strong government focus. Education is also a focus of global concern. Building on the Universal Primary Education MDG, the SDGs aspire to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education, whilst reducing inequality within and among countries. At the same time, the education system in the world has been undergoing dynamic changes in the last several decades, in a two-way process interlinked with globalisation. On the one hand, the world’s globalisation is spearheaded by economic forces, technological innovation and education. On the other hand, the education system has to respond to the demands of globalisation. For instance, the ICT-based knowledge era is leading in the need for students to acquire new skill sets such as communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, as highlighted in the '21st Century education’ initiative, in turn requiring a system centred on the student, rather than the conventional teacher-centred approach. There is also this view of global education, which sees the function of education as preparing global citizens with a strong emphasis on interconnectedness and interdependence. This paper will explore the extent to which these global education trends are reflected in Ethiopia at two levels. Firstly, the paper will consider the intentions of Ethiopian policymakers towards preparing the students to the globalizing world, as well as challenges they face in doing so, such as lagging infrastructural development, regional and other disparities, and the need to address other development priorities. Secondly, the paper will consider the experience of students, teachers, schools and communities in four rural communities of Ethiopia. It will explore the extent to which these global education trends and the Ethiopian government’s policy intentions are felt at their level, and their perceptions of the value of education as they experience it, in equipping them for the life they aspire to. The paper will also offer some reflections on the prospects, given current trends at the national level and in these four communities, of reaching the goal of an inclusive, equitable, quality education for all.
GLOBALISATION AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN TWO ETHIOPIAN COMMUNITIES - HARRESAW, EASTERN TIGRAY; AZE DEBO, KEMBATA [Abstract ID: 1205-13]
In this paper I make use of data from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study planned for early 2018, to explore the ways in which ‘globalisation’ has affected trajectories of migration from (and in, if applicable) four rural communities since 2010.
The national, regional and global migration contexts have significantly changed since then - with the 2013-14 and recent wave of return of Ethiopian nationals from Saudi Arabia; increasing foreign investment-led (agro-)industrialisation of the Ethiopian economy; the emerging policy discourse on the importance of small towns, in Ethiopia and elsewhere; regionally, large population movements linked to political crises in nearby countries; and globally, the unfolding ‘migration crisis’, a perceived rise in religious proselytising, and the growing influence of ‘national security’ concerns in domestic and foreign policies. The paper will discuss how and to what extent these and other global ideas and trends from abroad, have made practices of and perspectives on outward migration evolve in the communities. Among others, I will consider how this may have affected the relative importance of migration types (international, urban, industrial, rural) and inter-linkages between them in trajectories of step- and repeat migration. I will explore who migrates and how these trajectories are constructed over time, the strength and types of links that migrants retain with their home communities, as well as the way community members weigh migration vis-à-vis other livelihood options. In seeking to explain differentials, the paper will look at each community’s past trajectory in relation to migration for work, as well as variations in the extent to which they have been exposed to global ideas and trends.
GLOBALISATION AND WOMEN’S HEALTH - EVIDENCE FROM ETHIOPIA WIDE RESEARCH [Abstract ID: 1205-14]
In this paper I analyse and compare how globalisation has influenced the health and well-being of women in four rural communities in Tigray, Amhara, Oromia and Southern Region. I argue that in rural areas globalisation demonstrates itself in various ways, including new technological solutions in health care delivery, improvements of infrastructure, new modalities of health care governance as well as transfers including new ideas, behaviors and identities. I explore how consequences of globalisation, frequently related to government interventions, have modified the life conditions, health status and position of women of different wealth statuses in the four communities in the period 2003 - 2018. The data come from previous editions of Ethiopia WIDE project (2003, 2010/13) and the edition in 2018.
GLOBALISATION AND YOUTH IN 4 WIDE ETHIOPIA SITES: COMMUNICATION MEDIA, LEISURE AND CULTURAL PRACTICES [Abstract ID: 1205-02]
This paper makes use of data from four rural communities from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study, planned for early 2018, to explore the ways in which different dimensions of ‘globalisation’ have affected youth since the last round of research in 2010. To what extent have ideas coming from outside the communities influenced the ideas and practices of young people? These ideas have come either directly from foreign countries through satellite TVs, internet, diaspora networks, migration experiences, or more indirectly but potentially more concretely, through local media, education and government extension services, religious missions and preachers and market forces. I consider how these ideas have influenced youth perspectives on their livelihoods, gender roles, intergenerational relations, household formation, youth roles in the community, and religious and local cultural beliefs and practices. The paper considers similarities and differences across the four sites and explores different perspectives among young people in each community, and the extent to which they are linked to gender, age, wealth, and status.
GLOBALISATION, CLIMATE CHANGE AND MIGRATION IN HARRESAW - A REMOTE RURAL COMMUNITY IN EASTERN TIGRAY [Abstract ID: 1205-10]
In this paper we intend to use data from a rural community in Tigray Region from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study planned for early 2018. We will explore the ways in which different dimensions of ‘globalisation’ have affected the trajectory of the community since the last round of research in 2010. How, if at all, have climate change, information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, religious proselytising from abroad, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies, international migration and links with diasporas, and other dimensions of ‘globalisation’ impinged on the community and its members during the period 2010 to 2018?
GLOCALISED DEVELOPMENT, CITY/COUNTRYSIDE RE-ARTICULATIONS AND RELIGIOUS PROSELYTISING: EXPLORING THE TRANS-NATIONAL DYNAMICS AND PRACTICES OF RURAL/URBAN TRANSFORMATIONS IN TURUFE (WEST ARSI ZONE, OROMIYAA REGION) [Abstract ID: 1205-15]
Continuing the previous investigations conducted by the WIDE research team in the Turufe district (qebele) of the Oromiyaa West Arsi Zone, this contribution aims to provide a deeper understanding of the plural local, national and global dynamics and practices of the development policies implemented for the last two decades in this rural community bordering or near municipalities. By applying Robertson’s concept of ‘glocalization’ to the field of development, this study proposes to explore the trans-local interactions and trans-national relationships developed around the recent rural/urban transformations, (re-)articulating the socio-cultural identity of the Turufe community – or locality – within and beyond the local, regional and federal Ethiopian state frameworks. From the Derg’s villagization program to the current rurbanisation along the expansion of regional and local towns like Shashamene and Kuyera, the administrative reorganisations and socioeconomic transformations of Turufe district have deeply reordered the former rural/urban networks and trans-local/national solidarities. They have also fostered the emergence of new entrepreneurs of ‘glocalised development’ – regional administrators, foreign investors and migrant workers – challenging the ‘traditional’ position and authority of local leaders and federations. Last but not the least, these social de-territorialization and re-territorialization processes involve religious actors, too. These other promoters of development range from the early Catholic missions to the present ‘indigenous’ agents of Christian or Muslim reformist projects, embedded into trans-national connections with Arsi, Bale or other regional neighbourhoods and migrant communities in North America or in the Middle East.
IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: THE EXPERIENCES OF AZE DEBO AND HARRESAW [Abstract ID: 1205-03]
Migration has became a common life experience for many people in Ethiopia, leading to multifaceted changes in their lives. While economic impact is the core and visible impact, migration also has a considerable impact on gendered roles and responsibilities. This paper will explore the impact of migration on pre-existing gender roles and responsibilities in four different rural areas of Ethiopia and how these changes are perceived by the communities and their contribution to overall community development. This paper will also explore how migration is affecting 1) the migrants, 2) their families, and 3) the communities in both positive and negative ways, which can be perceived subjectively. The focus will be on changes in gendered roles of migrants and the wider community in which they live, how these may change in terms of the migrants’ own activities, how they relate to their families and household statuses l, and changes in the roles of migrants and their households in the community. The paper will explore how roles and responsibilities in marriage, household income decision-making, child care, reproductive health, farming activities and off farm activities are affected as a result of migration. In terms of roles in community, it will explore the migrants’ roles in relation to leadership positions in political and social institutions and community development groups. The paper will also compare the pattern of the impact on gendered roles and responsibilities in contexts where migrants are dominantly male in contrast with situations where there are mainly female migrants.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND THE YOUTH AMONG A KAMBATA COMMUNITY: THE VIEWS FROM BELOW AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS [Abstract ID: 1205-12]
International migration through legal and particularly illegal and risky routes to the Gulf States and some African countries has become a matter of national concern in Ethiopia. The disadvantages and advantages mostly from irregular channels have created a gloomy yet mixed picture of migration abroad; a social dilemma that needs to be addressed. Criticisms made against this labour migration have compelling reasons but are short of grasping the broad range of factors, nuances and complexities that surround the motivations of migrants themselves, their parents and communities. As a result, we have a situation where there is conflict between local and national interests. That this form of mobility has improved community attitudes, and the social status as well, of female youths because of remittances, savings and relief to land pressure, among others, are at the root of local justifications in its favour. Therefore, exploring and analyzing these complexities can help in arriving at better policy options to address the dilemma. This paper, based on empirical evidence from a largely qualitative research carried out in Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray regions, explores the issue focusing on the causes of migration such as youth aspirations and effects such as youth roles in social structures and benefits such as investment in agriculture and education. It also looks at disadvantages such as family labor loss and the sufferings of migrants. Moreover, using comparative and historical methods, and linking to national and international discourses and response to migration abroad, the paper assesses available local economic opportunities in relation to decisions about migrating abroad. In so doing, it reveals how subjective meaning-making is resulting in differing conceptions of the same objective phenomenon and points out some ways of reconciling this. The approach of treating the issue as a complex and conflicting process leading to different, context-based and national outcomes is expected to invite more theoretical and policy research in this field, which is vital to ongoing change and transformation in the country.
MULTIPLE RURAL INVOLVEMENTS IN GLOBALLY-LINKED MODERNISATION PROCESSES: A COMPARISON OF FOUR RURAL COMMUNITIES IN ETHIOPIA [Abstract ID: 1205-11]
In this paper, we intend to use data from the fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study, planned for early 2018, on four rural communities: one in each of the Tigray, Amhara, Oromia and Southern Regions. We will compare the ways in which different dimensions of "globalisation" have affected the trajectories of these different types of communities since the last round of research in 2010-11, looking for commonalities and differences. How, if at all, have climate change, information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, religious proselytising from abroad, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies, international migration and links with diasporas and other dimensions of globalization impinged on the communities and their members during the period from 2010-11 to 2018?
PARTICIPATING IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES AND ENSURING LOCAL FOOD SECURITY: TENSIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ETHIOPIAN COFFEE-GROWING REGIONS [Abstract ID: 1205-05]
Ethiopia is the world’s 6th largest producer of coffee. Exports represent roughly 40% of foreign currency inflows and more than one million households are involved in coffee production. For more than half a century, authorities have promoted the coffee sector in different ways: intensification programs, extension of the planted areas, strong value chain regulation to improve the positioning of Ethiopian coffee on the international market, etc. These efforts have accelerated in the last decade with the support of international donors, labeling organizations and agro-industrial firms. It can be observed that producing coffee is the way by which many rural Ethiopians connect with a globalized world, for the better or for the worse. But how do Ethiopian farmers integrate coffee at the farm level? What part of the producers’ income does coffee represent and which resources, labour and assets are allocated to it? What kind of interaction does coffee cultivation have with other farm activities, especially with food production? In this contribution, the authors will focus especially on the existing tension between coffee specialization and local food security. It is based on empirical evidence collected between 2008 and 2011 in three major coffee-growing areas representing contrasted agrarian systems – Jimma, Kafa and Yirga Cheffe – where coffee interacts with food production under very different modalities. The consequences of smallholders’ specialization in coffee production – in Jimma and Yirga Cheffe – and those of public policies oriented to increase coffee-growing areas by promoting large-scale private investments, especially in Kafa, have been analyzed both in terms of food security and socioeconomic differentiation. Then, the conditions under which coffee production could have a leverage effect on income generation, including food production for self-consumption and rural livelihoods improvement have been examined in order to understand how Ethiopian peasants could take an advantage of the globalization processes.
REVISITING SHASHEMENE: A MIXED METHODS APPROACH TO A STUDY OF SOCIAL CHANGE [Abstract ID: 1205-19]
From 1972 to 1973, I spent a year in Shashemene gathering data, in preparation for a doctoral dissertation which was to focus on rural-urban migration. Shashemene was at the time the fastest growing town in Ethiopia. As it turned out, the unusually rapid growth of the town was primarily caused by inter-urban mobility and closely linked to the varying conditions of the many different ethnic groups that populated the town. My main data came from two surveys that I administered with the help of local talent, supported by primary data from urban surveys carried out by the Central Statistical Office in 1965 and 1970. In 2008, I was able to visit Shashemene again in order to do a re-study of my original project. My aim was to find out how the many dramatic events that had occurred Ethiopia appeared in people’s accounts of their life stories, and how the transformation of Ethiopian society plays out in a town such as Shashemene. The data base this time was made up of primary data from the original surveys, the same from the censuses of 1994 and 2007, a sample survey carried out in 2008, and in-depth life history interviews from 2009. In this paper, I will discuss the experience of doing a restudy after such a long time. What can be understood when analysing data collected in a situation where everything has changed drastically, i.e. the field, the researcher and the theoretical framework? How has a mixed methods approach worked in this situation? These are the questions I want to discuss in Makelle.
SOME ASPECTS OF GLOBAL INFLUENCES, OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES IN SIRBA, OROMIA REGION [Abstract ID: 1205-08]
In this paper, we intend to use data from a rural community in the Oromiyaa Region from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia-WIDE longitudinal study planned for early 2018. We will explore the ways in which different dimensions of "globalisation" have affected the trajectory of the community since the last round of research in 2010. How, if at all, have climate change, information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, religious proselytising from abroad, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies, international migration and links with diasporas and other dimensions of globalisation impinged on the community and its members during the period from 2010 to 2018?
THE RECENT IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON A RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE SOUTHERN REGION: AZE DEBO, KAMBATA ZONE [Abstract ID: 1205-09]
In this pape we intend to use data from a rural community in Southern Region from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study planned for early 2018. We will explore the ways in which different dimensions of "globalisation" have affected the trajectory of the community since the last round of research in 2010. How, if at all, have climate change, information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, religious proselytising from abroad, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies, international migration and links with diasporas and other dimensions of globalisation impinged on the community and its members during the period from 2010 to 2018?
THE RECENT IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON A RURAL COMMUNITY IN AMHARA REGION: YETMEN, ENEMAY WEREDA, EAST GOJJAM [Abstract ID: 1205-07]
In this paper we intend to use data from a rural community in Amhara Region from an upcoming fourth round of the Ethiopia WIDE longitudinal study planned for early 2018. We will explore the ways in which different dimensions of ‘globalisation’ have affected the trajectory of the community since the last round of research in 2010. How, if at all, have climate change, information and communications networks, imported technologies, international trade, investment and aid, religious proselytising from abroad, neo-liberal, developmental state, humanitarian and other political ideologies, international migration and links with diasporas, and other dimensions of ‘globalisation’ impinged on the community and its members during the period 2010 to 2018?