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[PANEL] 0706 STUDIES ON LEGAL HISTORY OF MODERN ETHIOPIA
MEHRETEAB G. Ghebregergs, Department Head, Department of Law, Mekelle University, Ethiopia
DEREJE Workayehu; KALEAB Tadesse Sigatu; TESHOME Dula; K.Sambasiva RAO
A HISTORY OF SOCIAL CHANGE AND CRIME OCCURANCE: PATTERNS AND TRENDS IN NORTH GONDAR, 1941-1991 [Abstract ID: 0706-02]
This study critically examined an event of great political and social implications in Ethiopia. Despite its delicate nature, crime in Ethiopia in general and in North Gondar in particular has hardly become a focus of scholarly attention. In so far no major attempt has been made to reconstruct the history of crime in Ethiopia, from the scholarly point of view. Even the available works provide very little information on the subject under consideration. Interest in the topic of crime has developed within the discipline of history in recent years and that many criminologists and sociologists have come to appreciate the value of diachronic or historical approach to the subject. However, historical approach to the study of crime in Ethiopia is still lacking particularly in major research works on crime.This research has examined the patterns and trends of crime in North Gondar from a historical perspective in line with the rapid tempo of social change the country experienced from 1941 on. I selected Gondar city, Metema and Tachi Armachiho based on the rate of Urbanization, trans-boarder crimes and the wide spread practice of blood feud among others. In the process of writing this paper, consulted both primary and secondary source materials by applying data collecting methods like archival research, library work and interview with selected individuals based on their knowledge of the subject matter.The changes in the pattern and trends of crime in the area appear to have been the direct result of the changes that were taking place in the country in 1941 and 1974. The liberation of Ethiopia from Italians’ in 1941 and the adoption of socialist ideology after 1974 and the subsequent changes in the political economy had an effect on the nature and type of crimes committed. As a result, crimes that were wide spread in the pre-revolutionary period could not be so large in number in the post-revolution period and vice versa.
CONSTITUTIONS IN ETHIOPIAN HISTORY: REFLECTION ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL LANDMARKS [Abstract ID: 0706-01]
In Ethiopia besides the indigenous constitutional traditions (like the Gadaa system of Oromo or the Mikiricho, council or advisor system of Keffa or Wolayita), the Central Government used two traditional/religious semi-constitutional documents, Kibre Negest and Fitiha Negest. Then in the 1931 Emperor Haile Silassie introduced the first modern constitution and it was revised in 1955. Then there is not well considered the 1974 draft constitution, which projects the constitutional monarchy. When Derg came to power in the same year, it made two proclamations that established a provisional military administration and in 1987 ratified a constitution at a long process. After the demeans of Derg the Transitional Charter in 1991 and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia established in 1995. The present study shows the core points in historical evolution of the constitutions, the first time when state and church are separated and the response of the Ethiopian church at that time, key precedent links to the FDRE's constitution, main theme of ethnic federalism and other landmarks by analysing the rarely covered historical documents from Ethiopian Nationalities Study Institution and the 1974 draft constitution and the minutes of the constitutional assembly and other related documents.
IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ATTRIBUTES ON INFORMATION DISCLOSURE: EVIDENCE FROM ETHIOPIAN BANKING SECTOR [Abstract ID: 0706-03]
This study examines the effect of corporate governance attributes and bank characteristics on corporate governance and risk related information disclosure. The data used in this study was secondary data; annual reports of 14 commercial banks for the period 2010 to 2015 were collected from national bank of Ethiopia. To measure the risk disclosure, 37 attributes of risk related information were selected and the level of risk disclosure was measured by dividing the total score to the maximum obtainable score 37. Content analysis was used to measure risk disclosure score and to test the effect of explanatory variables on the response variable, data was analyzed using random effect model. The results of the study showed that risk disclosure is positively affected by risk committee size, gender diversity in board room, and frequency of risk committee meetings. Moreover, the study also revealed that ownership type has a significant negative relationship with risk disclosure.